Planning Fiber Optic Network

book3Effectively design and deploy bandwidth-rich networks for major types of data traffic. Covering both short-reach and long-haul networks, Planning Fiber Optic Networks provides full details on all major fiber optic parameters and includes appropriate background theory and design calculations. You will find guidelines for optimizing SONET/SDH and Ethernet networks, setting up network topologies, minimizing signal loss and impairments, and using dark fiber.

Author:Bob Chomycz
Publisher:McGraw-Hill
ISBN:0-07-1499199

Table of Content

1.0 Signal Propagation in a Fiber

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Carrier Wave Propagation
1.3 Information Signal
1.4 Modulation

2.0 Optical Power and Loss

2.1 Description
2.2 Optical Signal Power Unit
2.3 Link Power Budget

2.3.1 Example

2.4 Link Budget with Optical Modulation Amplitude

2.4.1 Example

2.5 Optical Loss Measurement
2.6 Optical Return Loss (ORL)

2.6.1 Reflectance
2.6.2 Detrimental Effects Due to Low ORL
2.6.3 ORL Measurement

2.7 Average and Peak Optical Power

3.0 Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR)

3.1 OSNR

3.1.1 OSNR Measurement
3.1.2 WDM OSNR
3.1.3 Resolution Bandwidth (RBW)
3.1.4 OSNR Link Calculation
3.1.5 Raman Amplifier
3.1.6 OSNR Examples

3.2 Bit Error Ratio (BER)
3.3 Q-Factor

3.3.1 Extinction Ratio and Optical Modulation Amplitude (OMA)
3.3.2 Q-Factor Budget

3.4 Forward Error Correction (FER)

4.0 Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

4.1 Description
4.2 Fiber Types
4.3 Coping with Chromatic Dispersion

4.3.1 Conditions for Chromatic Dispersion Planning
4.3.2 Chromatic Dispersion Limit
4.3.3 Factors that Contribute to Chromatic Dispersion
4.3.4 Methods to Reduce Link Chromatic Dispersion

4.4 Planning Chromatic Dispersion Budget

4.4.1 Total Link Chromatic Dispersion
4.4.2 Chromatic Dispersion Compensation Modules
4.4.3 Chromatic Dispersion Compensation
4.4.4 Compensation for DWDM Networks
4.4.5 Deploying DCMs

4.6 Chromatic Dispersion Measurement Methods

4.6.1 Time of Flight Method
4.6.2 Time of Flight Method – OTDR
4.6.3 Modulated Phase Shift Method
4.6.4 Differential Phase Shift Method

4.7 Chromatic Dispersion Planning Summary

5.0 Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

5.1 Description
5.2 Causes of DGD
5.3 Probability Distribution
5.4 Spectral Behaviour of DGD
5.5 Link Design Value (PMDQ) and Maximum PMD
5.6 Total Link PMD
5.7 Second Order PMD
5.8 Polarization Dependant Loss (PDL)
5.9 Polarization Maintaining Fiber
5.10 PMD Measurement Methods

5.10.1 Interferometric Method
5.10.2 Fixed Analyzer Method
5.10.3 Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis Method
5.10.4 Measurement Accuracy

5.11 Coping with PMD
5.12 PMD Planning Summary
5.13 PMD Examples

6.0 WDMs and Couplers

6.1 Description
6.2 WDM Internal Technologies

6.2.1 WDM System Configuration and Transceivers

6.3 Simple Standalone DWDM System
6.4 Basic WDM Types
6.5 DWDM, CWDM, and Cross Band WDMs
6.6 DWDM

6.6.1 DWDM Channel Capacity
6.6.2 Expanding Fiber Capacity using Basic DWDMs
6.6.3 Example

6.7 CWDM

6.7.1 CWDM Channel Capacity
6.7.2 Expanding Fiber Capacity using Basic CWDMs
6.7.3 Example
6.7.4 CWDM Capacity Expansion using DWDMs

6.8 Cross Band WDM
6.9 WDM Specification

6.9.1 Basic WDMs

6.9.1.1 Insertion Loss (IL)
6.9.1.2 Channel (Passband) Ripple or Flatness
6.9.1.3 Channel Loss Uniformity
6.9.1.4 Channel Wavelength
6.9.1.5 Channel Spacing
6.9.1.6 Channel Passband
6.9.1.7 Adjacent Channel Isolation
6.9.1.8 Non Adjacent Channel Isolation
6.9.1.9 Directivity
6.9.1.10 Return Loss
6.9.1.11 Chromatic Dispersion
6.9.1.12 Polarization Mode Dispersion
6.9.1.13 Polarization Dependant Loss
6.9.1.14 Power Handling
6.9.1.15 Operating and Storage Temperatures

6.10 Couplers and Splitters

6.10.1 Bidirectional Coupler
6.10.2 Red and Blue Band Coupler
6.10.3 Splitters

6.11 Active WDM Systems
6.12 WDM Technology Selection

7.0 Fiber Nonlinear Impairments

7.1 Fiber Nonlinear Impairments
7.2 Four-Wave Mixing (FWM)

7.2.1 Methods to Reduce the Effects of FWM
7.2.2 Estimating Generated FWM Component Power

7.3 Self-Phase Modulation (SPM) and Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM)
7.4 Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)
7.5 Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects
7.6 Summary

8.0 Fiber Characterization

8.1 Description
8.2 Span Loss
8.3 Chromatic Dispersion (CD)
8.4 Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
8.5 Optical Return Loss (ORL)
8.6 Fiber Span Length
8.7 Non-Linear Impairments

8.7.1 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
8.7.2 Four-Wave Mixing and Nonlinear Coefficient Measurement

8.8 Signal Latency

9.0 Testing Ethernet and SONET/SDH Networks

9.1 Bit Error Ratio (BER) Test
9.2 RFC-2544 Test

10.0 Network Elements

10.1 Description
10.2 Optical Transceivers

10.2.1 Lasers
10.2.2 Laser Parameters
10.2.3 Laser Modulation
10.2.4 Receivers
10.2.5 Receiver Parameters

10.3 Optical Amplifiers

10.3.1 EDFA Amplifier
10.3.2 Raman Amplifier

11.0 Dark Fiber

11.1 Leasing or Purchasing Dark Fiber
11.2 Dark Fiber Considerations

12.0 Fiber Network Planning

12.1 Guidelines
12.2 Metropolitan Ethernet Network
12.3 SONET/SDH Network

Appendices

Appendix A – Glossary

– Symbols used in Text
– Abbreviations
– Glossary of Terms

Appendix B – OSNR Calculations

– EDFA OSNR Calculation

Appendix C – WDM Channel Assignments

– Fiber Bands
– WDM Channel Assignments

Appendix D – Formulae

– Spectral Width Conversion Between Wavelength and Frequency Units
– Summation of Channel Optical Power in a WDM
– Chromatic Dispersion Coefficient Calculation

Appendix E – Pulse Shape Characteristics

– Gaussian Pulse

Appendix F – Standards
Appendix G – Units

Index